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[19] One Mandinka tradition tells that the legendary first emperor Sundiata Keita changed himself into a hippopotamus upon his death in the Sankarani River and that it's possible to find villages in the area of this river, termed "old Mali", which have Mali for a name. [65], Since 2016, Mali has been divided into ten regions and the District of Bamako. Nowadays, the day is a national holiday in order to remember the tragic events and the people that were killed. [102] Other natural resources include kaolin, salt, phosphate, and limestone. It becomes a one-party, socialist state. The population of Mali is 19.1 million. [135] Traditional roles of men and women are emphasized in which the man is the head of the household and women have to meet the needs and demands of men. Mali is considered one of the poorest countries in the world. [121] The University of Bamako, which includes four constituent universities, is the largest university in the country and enrolls approximately 60,000 undergraduate and graduate students. [132] The lack of participation of women in politics is due to the idea that politics is associated with men and that women should avoid this sector. On 6 April 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad unilaterally declared their secession from Mali as Azawad, an act that neither Mali nor the international community recognised. The projections are created for 2 reasons which are either for access to resources or to separate two countries that would otherwise have a boundary. 092-073P-CTSP that claims equality to all Malian citizens and discrimination is prohibited, which has not been followed. Presidential elections were held on 28 July 2013, with a second-round run-off held on 11 August, and legislative elections were held on 24 November and 15 December 2013. [93], Eighty percent of Malian workers are employed in agriculture. [24] By 1905, most of the area was under firm French control as a part of French Sudan. [134] Strengthening and the support of girls' and women's access to education and training is recommended to improve gender equality in Mali. Prorupted States . [137] Malian music is diverse and has several different genres. However, Northern Ireland, Wales, and Scotland hold some degree of devolved and autonomous power. Lesotho. These resources include water, oil, gold, diamonds and anything else that is of worth. [134] Members of Parliament, 15 were women in 2010 out of 147 members. How do you use prorupted in a sentence? [24] The Songhai Empire's eventual collapse was largely the result of a Moroccan invasion in 1591, under the command of Judar Pasha. To the south the boundaries are political. [82][83] Following the 2007 elections, the Alliance for Democracy and Progress held 113 of 160 seats in the assembly. [105] About 80% of Mali's population can communicate in Bambara, which serves as an important lingua franca. [97], Mali's key industry is agriculture. Attributes of a nation state | ameya aatman academia. [91] The median age was 15.9 years. Barricades as well as roadblocks were erected and Traoré declared a state of emergency and imposed a nightly curfew. Definition of prorupted in the dictionary. km. b. prorupted. [88] Since the institution of a democratic form of government in 2002, Mali's relations with the West in general and with the United States in particular have improved significantly. Mali is a part of the "Franc Zone" (Zone Franc), which means that it uses the CFA franc. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 26 okt 2020 om 10:04. Mali is also a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). [146] Traditional wrestling (la lutte) is also somewhat common, though popularity has declined in recent years. For other uses, see. [150], This article is about the country in West Africa. He and three associates were later tried and convicted and received the death sentence for their part in the decision-making of that day. answer choices . [147][148] Other popular dishes include fufu, jollof rice, and maafe. [121] In 2001, the general government expenditures on health totaled about US$4 per capita at an average exchange rate. An estimated 90% of Malians are Muslim (mostly Sunni[120]), approximately 5% are Christian (about two-thirds Roman Catholic and one-third Protestant) and the remaining 5% adhere to traditional African religions such as the Dogon religion. [21][22] It is suggested that a sound shift led to the change, whereby in Fulani the alveolar segment /nd/ shifts to /l/ and the terminal vowel denasalises and raises, leading "Manden" to shift to /mali/. [101] Gold is mined in the southern region and Mali has the third highest gold production in Africa (after South Africa and Ghana). 30 seconds . [62] Wagué announced the formation of the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP) and promised elections in the future. [54], During the first week of October 2019, two jihadist attacks in the towns of Boulikessi and Mondoro killed more than 25 Mali soldiers near the border with Burkina Faso. [50] However, the group has been blamed for the 24 March 2019 massacre of 160 Fula villagers. In 2002, 700 GWh of hydroelectric power were produced in Mali. An estimated 800,000 people in Mali are descended from slaves. Mali is a developing African country and is one of the poorest countries in the world. Overland, Indra; Bazilian, Morgan; Ilimbek Uulu, Talgat; Vakulchuk, Roman; Westphal, Kirsten (2019). The Songhai had long been a major power in West Africa subject to the Mali Empire's rule. A study of Malian proverbs noted that in old Mali, there is a village called Malikoma, which means "New Mali", and that Mali could have formerly been the name of a city. Can separate two states to keep them from sharing a boundary . New questions in History. [113], Mixed European/African descendants of Muslims of Spanish, as well some French, Irish, Italian and Portuguese origins live in Mali, they are known as the Arma people (1% of the nation's population). [119] Atheism and agnosticism are believed to be rare among Malians, most of whom practice their religion daily. [91], Mali's population encompasses a number of sub-Saharan ethnic groups. Prorupted state examples Territorial morphology ppt video online download. This protrusion gives the state several advantages. [82] Mali's highest courts are the Supreme Court, which has both judicial and administrative powers, and a separate Constitutional Court that provides judicial review of legislative acts and serves as an election arbiter. The thermal equator, which matches the hottest spots year-round on the planet based on the mean daily annual temperature, crosses the country. [140] Mali's literary tradition is passed mainly by word of mouth, with jalis reciting or singing histories and stories known by heart. [134] Gender-based violence in Mali happens at the national and household level. The country's economy centers on agriculture and mining. [47], “I’ve discussed the growing violence with my commanders and with village chiefs from all sides. Mexico is an elongated state with prorupted parts. Learn Prorupted State with free interactive flashcards. Presidential elections were held in Mali on 29 July 2018. During this time, flooding of the Niger River is common, creating the Inner Niger Delta. Mali is the eighth-largest country in Africa, with an area of just over 1,240,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi). [20], Rock paintings and carvings indicate that northern Mali has been inhabited since prehistoric times when the Sahara was fertile grassland. Yes, sure, there are jihadists in this zone, but the real problem is banditry, animal theft, score settling – people are enriching themselves using the fight against terrorists as a cover.”[47], The conflict has seen the creation and growth of Dogon and Bambara militias. These prorupted parts are the Baja peninsula to the Northwest and the Yucatan peninsula to the Southeast. In January 2012, an armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, in which Tuareg rebels took control of a territory in the north, and in April declared the secession of a new state, Azawad. Since the agreement, sixteen enterprises were privatized, 12 partially privatized, and 20 liquidated. [135] So girls at a young age are shown and learn household activities like chores, cooking, childcare, etc. The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage. The Traoré regime repressed all dissenters until the late 1980s. [141], The best-known novel by a Malian writer is Yambo Ouologuem's Le devoir de violence, which won the 1968 Prix Renaudot but whose legacy was marred by accusations of plagiarism. [115] This conflict also plays a role in the continuing Northern Mali conflict where there is a tension between both Tuaregs and the Malian government, and the Tuaregs and radical Islamists who are trying to establish sharia law. [23] The empire expanded throughout West Africa from the 8th century until 1078, when it was conquered by the Almoravids. The sovereign state of Mali consists of eight regions and its borders on the north reach deep into the middle of the Sahara Desert, while the country's southern part, where the majority of inhabitants live, features the Niger and Senegal rivers. Compact state wikipedia. 2012 - Coup after which Islamist fighters capture several towns. [134] Finally, higher education for girls consist of short programs because early marriages prevent most girls from pursuing a longer term education program like those in science. [49] One such militia is the Dogon group Dan Na Ambassagou, created in 2016. Mali, landlocked country of western Africa, mostly in the Saharan and Sahelian regions. No. [93] Mali has made efficient use of hydroelectricity, consisting of over half of Mali's electrical power. [91] Life expectancy at birth was 53.06 years total (51.43 for males and 54.73 for females). The landscape transitions from Sahara Desert in … The central area has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with very high temperatures year-round, a long, intense dry season and a brief, irregular rainy season. [28], Anti-government protests in 1991 led to a coup, a transitional government, and a new constitution. Mali empire, trading empire that flourished in western Africa from the 13th to the 16th century. Mali, officieel de Republiek Mali, is een land in Afrika.Het noorden en noordoosten ligt in de Sahara, het zuiden en zuidwesten in de Sahel.Het land is volledig afgesloten van de zee. The Bambara (Bambara: Bamanankaw) are by far the largest single ethnic group, making up 36.5% of the population. Prorupted – A prorupted state has a long extension, or an extended arm of territory. For example, the state gets easy access to the coast and the local resources around it. The southern areas have a tropical wet and dry climate. "The GeGaLo index: Geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition". Africa Mali in crisis but not a failed state. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. "UNdata | record view | Total population, both sexes combined (thousands)". The coup is remembered as Mali's March Revolution of 1991. At its peak in 1300, the Mali Empire covered an area about twice the size of modern-day France and stretched to the west coast of Africa. There still persist certain hereditary servitude relationships,[111][112] and according to some estimates, even today approximately 200,000 Malians are still enslaved. [65] The vast northern desert part of Mali has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) with long, extremely hot summers and scarce rainfall which decreases northwards. The name means "the place where the king lives"[17] and carries a connotation of strength. India. In Bamako, in response to mass demonstrations organized by university students and later joined by trade unionists and others, soldiers opened fire indiscriminately on the nonviolent demonstrators. [134] Drop-out rates for girls are 15% higher than that of boys because they have a higher responsibility at home and most parents refuse to allow all their children to go to school, so boys tend to become educated. [47], In September 2018, the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue negotiated a unilateral ceasefire with Dan Na Ambassagou "in the context of the conflict which opposes the group to other community armed groups in central Mali". In the far north, there is a division between Berber-descended Tuareg nomad populations and the darker-skinned Bella or Tamasheq people, due to the historical spread of slavery in the region. [92] The military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization. Germany. [88] Mali was active in regional organizations such as the African Union until its suspension over the 2012 Malian coup d'état. Do not travel to Mali due to COVID-19, crime, terrorism, and kidnapping. [28] In 1990, cohesive opposition movements began to emerge, and was complicated by the turbulent rise of ethnic violence in the north following the return of many Tuaregs to Mali. Each is spoken as a first language primarily by the ethnic group with which it is associated. 26 March 1991 is the day that marks the clash between military soldiers and peaceful demonstrating students which climaxed in the massacre of dozens under the orders of then President Moussa Traoré. There's *protruded* state, maybe that's what you're asking for. It lies between latitudes 10° and 25°N, and longitudes 13°W and 5°E. [99] Seasonal variations lead to regular temporary unemployment of agricultural workers. [34] During this democratic period Mali was regarded as one of the most politically and socially stable countries in Africa. Learn more about the Mali … [121] [78] Executive power is vested in a president, who is elected to a five-year term by universal suffrage and is limited to two terms. [20], Another theory suggests that Mali is a Fulani pronunciation of the name of the Mande peoples. Polgreen, Lydia and Cowell, Alan (6 April 2012), Muller, CJ and Umpire, A (22 November 2012). Mali held a state funeral on Tuesday for former president Amadou Toumani Toure, an emblematic figure who steered the troubled nation to free elections and … [121], The constitution establishes a secular state and provides for freedom of religion, and the government largely respects this right. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a Level 4 Travel Health Notice for Mali due to COVID-19. Chile & Argentina) Prorupted State - compact with a piece sticking out, centrifugal (ex. [136] Most Malians wear flowing, colorful robes called boubous that are typical of West Africa. [24] The fall of the Songhai Empire marked the end of the region's role as a trading crossroads. [58][59] In July 2018, the Constitutional Court approved the nomination of a total of 24 candidates in the election. [30] The Traoré regime faced student unrest beginning in the late 1970s and three coup attempts. Popular unrest began on 5 June 2020 following irregularities in the March and April parliamentary elections, including the arrest of opposition leader Soumaila Cissé. Shape: Compact state with a projecting territory . On 18 August 2020, the nation's president and prime minister were arrested by the military following a mutiny spurred by protests over continuing economic woes and a worsening national security situation, and the following day both resigned. Mali has 12 national languages beside French and Bambara, namely Bomu, Tieyaxo Bozo, Toro So Dogon, Maasina Fulfulde, Hassaniya Arabic, Mamara Senoufo, Kita Maninkakan, Soninke, Koyraboro Senni, Syenara Senoufo, Tamasheq and Xaasongaxango. According to John Iliffe, "The worst crises were in the 1680s, when famine extended from the Senegambian coast to the Upper Nile and 'many sold themselves for slaves, only to get a sustenance', and especially in 1738–1756, when West Africa's greatest recorded subsistence crisis, due to drought and locusts, reportedly killed half the population of Timbuktu. At the national level, in 2012 the conflict in the Northern part of the country increased cases of kidnappings and rape toward women. Archipelagos such as Philippines, Indonesia, and Fiji are examples of fragmented states. [121] Mali's health and development indicators rank among the worst in the world. [38] In March, military officer Amadou Sanogo seized power in a coup d'état, citing Touré's failures in quelling the rebellion, and leading to sanctions and an embargo by the Economic Community of West African States. [28] In response to growing demands for multi-party democracy, the Traoré regime allowed some limited political liberalization. [36] Slavery in Mali has persisted for centuries. - really skinny & long, centrifugal (ex. [93] During 1988 to 1996, Mali's government largely reformed public enterprises. A prorupted or protruded has an extension that protrudes from the main territory. A good example of a unitary state includes the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Mali mostly lies in the southern Sahara and is mostly flat, but rises to rolling northern plains covered by sand. [147][148] Grains are generally prepared with sauces made from edible leaves, such as spinach or baobab, with tomato peanut sauce, and may be accompanied by pieces of grilled meat (typically chicken, mutton, beef, or goat). [24], One of the worst famines in the region's recorded history occurred in the 18th century. [134], Legislation at the international and national levels have been implemented over the decades to help promote women's rights in Mali. 14th-century Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta reported that the capital of the Mali Empire was called Mali. Peaceful student protests in January 1991 were brutally suppressed, with mass arrests and torture of leaders and participants. [100], In 1991, with the assistance of the International Development Association, Mali relaxed the enforcement of mining codes which led to renewed foreign interest and investment in the mining industry. [134] This means that women, in some cases, are subject to a double burden due to having professional and family obligations that does not apply to men. Pastoralists and nomads move seasonally to southern Mali or nearby coastal states. DR of Congo) Perforated State - state that surrounds other countries, centrifugal (ex. India is prorupted because it has a large projecting piece which is around Bangladesh. Mexico. Mali borders Algeria to the north-northeast, Niger to the east, Burkina Faso to the south-east, Ivory Coast to the south, Guinea to the south-west, and Senegal to the west and Mauritania to the north-west.[64]. [91] In Mali as well as Niger, the Moors are also known as Azawagh Arabs, named after the Azawagh region of the Sahara. [69] Each region has a governor. Perforated. [147][148] Malian cuisine varies regionally. In Mali, there are several newspapers such as Les Echos, L'Essor, Info Matin, Nouvel Horizon, and Le Républicain [fr]. The Baja California Peninsula contains two federal states that can be considered part of a prorupted state. [121] The system encompasses six years of primary education beginning at age 7, followed by six years of secondary education. (Köppen climate classification Aw) In review, Mali's climate is tropical, with March to May being the hot, dry season. [65] Most of Mali receives negligible rainfall and droughts are very frequent. By 26 March, the growing refusal of soldiers to fire into the largely nonviolent protesting crowds turned into a full-scale tumult, and resulted in thousands of soldiers putting down their arms and joining the pro-democracy movement. [56], On 19 August 2020, President Keïta announced his resignation and the dissolution of Parliament and the Government, just hours after he was arrested by the insurgent military following protests over corruption, economic woes, and a worsening national security situation.[57]. Shapes of states: compact, prorupted, perforated & more video. [98], The emergence of gold as Mali's leading export product since 1999 has helped mitigate some of the negative impact of the cotton and Ivory Coast crises. A curfew was begun and the streets of Bamako were quiet. [134] Similarly, technical and vocational education has a lower numbers of girls participating and are inadequately distributed in the country because the training centers are focused in the urban cities. [93] Two major companies, Societé de Telecommunications du Mali (SOTELMA) and the Cotton Ginning Company (CMDT), were expected to be privatized in 2008. [13] In the late 19th century, during the Scramble for Africa, France seized control of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. [95] The gross domestic product (GDP) has risen since. [49] The government denies this. sea, Chile also uses its highway system to transport goods to other parts of the country. Large settlements began to develop in 300 A.D., including Djenne. That afternoon, Lieutenant Colonel Amadou Toumani Touré announced on the radio that he had arrested the dictatorial president, Moussa Traoré. It is ranked no. armed conflict broke out in northern Mali, establishment of sea routes by the European powers, National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad, Economic Community of West African States, 24 March 2019 massacre of 160 Fula villagers, National Committee for the Salvation of the People, Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Index Mundi using CIA World Factbook statistics, January 20, 2018, retrieved April 13, 2019, Mali Empire (ca. Mali is connected with the French government by agreement since 1962 (creation of BCEAO). Edu. Riots broke out briefly following the shootings. Some famous Malian influences in music are kora virtuoso musician Toumani Diabaté, the ngoni with Bassekou Kouyate the virtuoso of the electric jeli ngoni, the late roots and blues guitarist Ali Farka Touré, the Tuareg band Tinariwen, Khaira Arby, and several Afro-pop artists such as Salif Keita, the duo Amadou et Mariam, Oumou Sangare, Fatoumata Diawara, Rokia Traore, and Habib Koité. A prorupted state is like a compact state but has an extension for resources or products to benefit the country. as that is the final duty of a woman to become a housewife and rear her children while the men provides for the family. [93], Between 1992 and 1995, Mali implemented an economic adjustment programme that resulted in economic growth and a reduction in financial imbalances. India is an example of a prorupted state. [142][144] Most towns and cities have regular games;[144] the most popular teams nationally are Djoliba AC, Stade Malien, and Real Bamako, all based in the capital. As a consequence, opposition parties were legalized and a national congress of civil and political groups met to draft a new democratic constitution to be approved by a national referendum. A number of unitary states comprise of zero areas that possess a degree of … A prorupted state is a compact state with a large projecting extension. [24], The Mali Empire later formed on the upper Niger River, and reached the height of power in the 14th century. a country (State) that is compact but has a projection protruding out from he main body of the State. [47] While some Fula have joined Islamist groups, Human Rights Watch reports that the links have been "exaggerated and instrumentalized by different actors for opportunistic ends". [134] The involvement of international organizations like USAID assist Mali financially to enhance their development through the efforts of the improvement of women's rights. 1 Questions & Answers Place. [105] Due to a backlash against the northern population after independence, Mali is now in a situation where both groups complain about discrimination on the part of the other group. [121], Estimates of literacy rates in Mali range from 27–30 to 46.4%, with literacy rates significantly lower among women than men. [citation needed], Mali was once part of three famed West African empires which controlled trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, slaves, and other precious commodities majorly during the reign of Mansa Musa from c. 1312 – c. The Mali Federation gained independence from France on 20 June 1960. [27], On 19 November 1968, following progressive economic decline, the Keïta regime was overthrown in a bloodless military coup led by Moussa Traoré,[28] a day which is now commemorated as Liberation Day. A perforated completely surrounds another state (country). [98][99] In addition to cotton, Mali produces rice, millet, corn, vegetables, tobacco, and tree crops. [133], The lack of education has increased gender inequality in Mali because not many women are working outside the household are even participating in the Public Administration sector. [84] The assembly holds two regular sessions each year, during which it debates and votes on legislation that has been submitted by a member or by the government. [52], The UN Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, Adama Dieng, warned of a growing ethnicization of the conflict. [88][89], Working to control and resolve regional conflicts, such as in Côte d’Ivoire, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, is one of Mali's major foreign policy goals. [29] The subsequent military-led regime, with Traoré as president, attempted to reform the economy. [134] The Ministry for Advancement of Women, Children and the Family was created specifically for women and children so that their basics rights and needs get met under the law. After a long period of one-party rule, a coup in 1991 led to the writing of a new constitution and the establishment of Mali as a democratic, multi-party state. [99], Energie du Mali is an electric company that provides electricity to Mali citizens. Q. Mexico is bordered by 4,353 km of land. The first pays $22,500 per year plus a health benefits package worth $95 per month. 7), "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical Update: Mali", "USAID MALI:ADDENDUM TO THE 2012 GENDER ASSESSMENT", "GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: MALI CASE STUDY", "Men, Gender Equality and Gender Relations in Mali: Findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey", "Ruiz looks to strengthen Mali roster ahead of Beijing", Possibilities and Challenges for Transitional Justice in Mali, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie,, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1960, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Bambara-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2013, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2019, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 06:53.

Fig And Prosciutto Bruschetta, Virtual Classroom Clipart, Best Golf Drivers Of All Time, Home Design Plans, Crumb Donut Ingredients, Wireless Broadcast Headset, Section 8 Housing Dc Eligibility, The Inkey List Lactic Acid Exfoliant, Brno Chair Tubular, Wordsworth Special Editions,

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